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This book is a systematic review and in depth analysis of previous work in which I demonstrated that a strict particle model of physics can account for the universe as we know it. Using this model, all physical phenomena can be explained in terms of particles and motion. Nothing happens without direct interaction, and no particle can be created or destroyed. There are no mysterious variables that can only be understood in mathematical terms. Everything is strictly physical. At the lowest level of physics, everything is particles knocking into each other to produce force and hooking up to each other to create structures. It is not an unfathomable complex of unearthly vibrations and energies. Rather, it is a simple and stripped down version of what we experience as reality in our everyday lives.

What follows is a step by step approach to understanding the mechanics of this model. We will start with the idea that all that we know in the universe derives in some way from particles existing in a void. From this we will build our entire theoretical framework by gradually introducing new concepts based on observation and experiment. The overall approach is layered. Each layer is based on previous findings combined with observations and experiments performed in the real world. In this way, we avoid circular reasoning and digressions into pure speculation. Rather than a confused mess, we end up with a coherent and straight forward story that represents a valid model of the world we live in.

With no further ado let’s start with the basics and move on from there:

The nothing and the something

A nothing is by definition without properties. A nothing has no extent, has no position, has no time, etc. It is void of any and all qualities. A something on the other hand has at least one property. From this alone, we know that space, however empty it may be, is still a something, and so is time. Space has dimensions and extent, and time has direction and duration.

The arrow of time

The arrow of time must not be confused with time itself. The arrow of time is the direction of time. The fact that things happen sequentially is due to the arrow of time. How long something takes to complete is a different matter. That’s time duration, which requires relative speeds to be explained. There has to be a unit of time that we can agree on. Otherwise, things are merely happening sequentially at no detectable rate.

To illustrate the difference between the arrow of time and time duration, imagine a universe in which all motion stops, including our biological functions. Let us further imagine that this state persists for aeons as measured by a God clock. Then, everything starts moving normally again. As far as we’re concerned, nothing unusual happened. We’ve been brought forward by the arrow of time, but the fact that it took aeons to go from one tick to another tick on our clocks, never registered with anyone. Time, as far as we’re concerned, is unaffected by any glitch in the God clock. Time is relative motion, detectable by our biological being, our clocks, and the universe at large. The arrow of time is the sequence of events, while time itself is relative speeds. Much confusion in physics is due to the failure to understand this difference.

The void

A void is an infinity of nothing. It has no dimensions. It has no extent. It has no time. As such, it must not be confused with empty space, which we all know to have these three qualities. Two objects placed in empty space can be separated by any distance. However, two objects placed into a void will be in physical contact with each other regardless of where they are placed. This is because a void, contrary to space, is nothing. With nothing separating two objects, they must be in contact. The only way to separate two objects in a void is to completely encapsulate one of them inside a third object.

If there is any kind of gap in the encapsulation of an object residing in a void, any texture that the object may have, small enough to brush into the gap, will be able to touch an outside object. This is because the gap itself is void of distance. It does not matter how thick the wall of the encapsulation is, if there is a gap, even the shortest filament will be able to reach out and touch an outside object. This too is contrary to our experience of space.

If we fill a void with a bunch of spherical balls, we will end up with little gaps everywhere. These gaps are dimensionless voids, so any texture that the balls may have will reach out and and brush into other balls with no regards to distance. Again, we are dealing with concepts that seem to be contrary to physical existence. However, there is evidence to support the idea that the void is real, and not merely a quaint idea.

Experimental physics has demonstrated that subatomic particles that have been in such close contact that they have become entangled, will remain entangled even when separated in space by a considerable distance. This strange behaviour seems to defy the idea that things have to be in physical contact in order to interact. However, if space is full of little gaps, and these gaps are voids, all we need in order to explain the phenomenon of quantum entanglement is for our particles to have textures small enough to interact through these gaps.

Space

As already explained, space is not a void. We know this because space does not behave like a void. Space has dimensions and extent, something the void does not possess. The properties of space derive from particles that make up space. These particles are the aether, from which everything in the universe has its origin. The aether is the origin of photon and neutrino radiation, and photon radiation is the origin of ordinary matter. The aether is also responsible for the three field forces we know as the electric force, gravity and magnetism. All of this will be explained in this book.

For now, it suffice to say that space is an aether filled void, and as such, there must necessarily be little gaps between aether particles. This means that the afore mentioned phenomenon of quantum entanglement can be directly explained from our definition of space.

Time and Distances

Time has the peculiar quality that it’s always moving forward. This too can be tied to particles, as we will show in the chapter on kinetics. This means that all aspects of time can be tied to particles. Our only premises are the particles themselves. We have no explanation for why particles have dimensions, extent and texture. Nor do we present any explanation for why there’s anything at all. This book is not a cosmology. We present no explanation for existence itself.

What we note is that time and distance have no meaning without a reference to a clock and a ruler. For time and distance to exist, there must be motion and extent. Particles must move and they must have an extent, otherwise, there’s no time and no distance. Without particles we are left with a void, and a void is merely an infinity of nothing.

From this it follows that our perception of time is in fact relative motion. We perceive time because things move. Likewise for distance. It too is a relative measure. We measure things in relation to ourselves or some other ruler. Without things, there are no distances. Without particles there are neither time nor distance, only a void where nothing exists and nothing ever happens.

With this in mind, let us now turn our attention to the particle quantum: the smallest meaningful subdivision of a particle.

Particle quanta

A particle is anything that comes as a small package. It may be a bundle of strings. It may be a droplet. It may be a grain. It may spin or twist. It may be possible to subdivide further. This is of no consequence. As long as it comes in a neat little package, it’s a particle.

A particle quantum has the additional quality that any subdivision of it will add nothing to our understanding. The particle quantum is not necessarily the physical limit of subdivisions. Rather, it is the logical limit beyond which further subdivisions are meaningless.

For the purpose of our proposed physics, particle quanta can neither be created nor destroyed. They are as eternal as the void.

Unlike the void, our particle quanta come with a set of properties. They are:

  • Dimensions: Particle quanta have 3 dimensions.
  • Size: Particle quanta have size. They have surface area. They have diameter. Particle quanta may or may not be spherical. However, for simplicity we will deal with them as if they are near perfect spheres.
  • Motion: Particle quanta can move.
  • Texture: Particle quanta come in 3 types, each with its own texture. The 3 possible textures are:
    • Abrasive
    • Woolly
    • Mixed (part abrasive and part woolly)

A lone particle quantum in a void

With the above in mind, we can consider a lone particle quantum in a void. Since the void is an infinity of nothing, the only thing with any properties in this imagined universe is the particle quantum itself. All attributes refer to the particle, not the void. The void is still an infinity of nothing, even as we place a particle in it.

From this, we see that it is not the void that has properties. It is the particle. All that can be known about this tiny universe is derived directly from the particle. Our notion of space is not derived from the void, but from particle quanta.

The 3 dimensions of space, derived directly from a particle quantum
The 3 dimensions of space, derived directly from a particle quantum

It should also be noted that a single particle quantum can act as a unit for length. It has a diameter and circumference. For reasons that will become clear later, we will eventually use the circumference of an electron as our real world unit of length.

Two particle quanta in a void

Let us now imagine a second particle quantum. The void is of course just as ready to accept this as it was in accepting the first one. The void is an infinity of nothing. It has no restrictions. Whatever we put into it is fine with it.

Note that in this particular case, our two particles will necessarily be directly adjacent to each other. This is because the void in which they are placed have no dimensions of its own. No matter where we place our two particles, they will always be in direct physical contact for the simple reason that there’s nothing separating them.

Our second quantum may be of identical size, or different size from the first one. Either way the notion of relative sizes arises. We can arbitrarily choose one of the two particle quanta as our reference, and measure the other particle quantum relative to it. We can now make precise statements about distance and bearing of the second particle relative to our reference.

Furthermore, we can detect motion. We can give one or both of our particles a push, making them roll around each other. This motion is not very informative. There is no way to say how fast our particles are rotating around each other because we have nothing to relate to. We have no clock. What we have is a reference speed. It’s only when we introduce a third particle that it becomes possible to make statements related to how fast things are moving.

Three particle quanta in a void

When we add a third particle quantum to our void, the concept of time arises, again as a relative measure. We arbitrarily choose one particle to represent our unit of length. Then we let an equally arbitrary second particle represent our unit of speed. Every time our second particle circles our first, we have a unit time. This constitutes a clock where a unit time can be defined as follows:

  • 1 unit time = 1 unit length / 1 unit speed

Now, we can make the following precise statements about our third particle:

  • We can locate its position in terms of unit length and bearing in 3 dimensions.
  • We can calculate its speed in terms of unit lengths per unit time.

A multitude of particle quanta in a void

Let us now proceed to put a multitude of particle quanta into our void. As already noted, every particle must necessarily be in physical contact with its neighbouring particles. This means that if one particle moves, all neighbouring particles must accommodate for this. This happens at a fixed rate depending on the local conditions in a manner similar to the way ripples spread in a pond. Aether particles move neither slower nor faster than the speed allowed by the collective property of the aether present in a given reference frame. This speed is what we in the real world refer to as the speed of light.

———— Four stable particles >

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