Morton Spears arrived at his particle quanta by comparing the mass of a proton to that of a neutron. The mass of these two particles differ by a ratio of 2177 to 2180. From this, he concluded that a proton is made up of 1089 positive quanta and 1088 negative quanta, and that the neutron is made up of 1090 positive and 1090 negative quanta.

This gives the proton a net charge of 1 and the neutron a net charge of 0.

The total number of charged particles gives us the mass of the proton and the neutron. The net sum of charged particles give us their overall charge.

Since the neutrino has no mass, we do not know how many neutrinos may take part in the construction of a proton or neutron. However, we do know that a free neutron will decay into a proton, an electron and a neutrino in about fifteen minutes when taken out of an atomic nucleus.

This tells us that the difference of 3 quanta between the neutron and the proton must be the charged quanta making up the electron.

The electron is therefore made up of 2 negative quanta and 1 positive quantum.

We will for now leave out the role of the neutrino in this. The point is that as far as mass is concerned we know the number of charged quanta making up the neutron, the proton and the electron.

The neutrino is very small. It is therefore reasonable to assume that it is made up of a single neutral quantum.

To summarize, we have the following:

• Proton = 1089 positive quanta + 1088 negative quanta (a total of 2177)
• Neutron = 1090 positive quanta + 1090 negative quanta (a total of 2180)
• Electron = 1 positive quantum + 2 negative quanta (a total of 3)
• Neutrino = 1 neutral quantum