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If neutrinos make up the electric force that keeps molecules from flying apart, they must be very small and also very abundant. They must be everywhere zipping back and forth, communicating the electric force on their way from one place to another.

Similarly, zero-point photons must be both abundant and small in order to be available inside materials to be kicked up in energy, and to communicate the magnetic force in the presence of moving charges.

These particles, which constitute the aether, must be the smallest of all particles. Being undetectable, except through their manifestation as force, they must also be without energy, or with so little energy that they cannot be detected.

One up in energy from zero-point photons, we have radio-wave photons. These particles are known to pass through most materials. Cell phones work inside buildings, cars and elevators. Radio-wave photons are almost as good at passing through materials as zero-point particles.

Radio-wave photons appear to be only a little bigger than zero-point photons.

Then there is visible light. These photons have more energy than radio-wave photons. The fact that they have problems going through most materials suggests to us that they are larger.

The most energetic photons are x-rays and gamma-rays. These are able to go through many materials. However, they are destructive. They go through walls like bullets through a net. They may not hit anything, in which case no damage is done, or they hit something and cause damage.

Unlike radio-waves, x-rays rarely change their direction on travelling through a material. They get through it in a straight line or they are stopped by hitting into something on their way. There is little scatter.

This is why x-rays are used to make pictures of bones and the like inside our bodies. They produce nice sharp images, shaded according to how many of the x-ray photons were stopped on their way.

However, their destructive nature prevent us from taking such pictures frequently. They can cause cancer and radiation sickness.

Even more dangerous are gamma-rays. They are the most energetic of all photons. So energetic that they sometimes pop, in which case they make the transition from being photons to being an electron-positron pair.

It is as if gamma-ray photons are so large that they cannot be made larger. Any collision that adds energy to a gamma-ray photon causes it to pop.

From this, we can conclude that the energy of photons are directly related to their size. The more energetic a photon is, the bigger it is.

As we will see, this can be used to explain both refraction and diffraction in optics.

Neutrino, zero-point photon, radio-wave photon, visible photon, gamma-ray photon and electron
Neutrino, zero-point photon, radio-wave photon, visible photon, gamma-ray photon and electron

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