To measure time, we need a clock. We all carry our own biological clock inside of us, and that is the clock we normally use. However, when we want to be precise about time, we build ourselves a clock.
The way a clock works is that it takes something that moves at a very predictable speed and make it give off a tick every time it has moved an equally precisely measured distance.
A time unit is always between two ticks. A single tick is not a time unit. That’s why we say that clocks go tick-tock or tick-tick.
The smallest possible time unit we can register is in other words a function of the smallest possible ruler and the fastest possible speed.
Since all matter in the closed state moves at the speed of light, we have a ready supply of stuff moving at a very precise speed.
Our smallest possible ruler is the electron.
The smallest possible time unit is therefore the time it takes a photon to cross an electron. If something happens faster than this, the time laps cannot be registered in any way.
An instantaneous event is anything that happens faster than it takes a photon to cross an electron.
Time is in other words a function of matter in the open state combined with matter in the closed state.
We get: Time = Size of matter in the open state / Speed of matter in the closed state.
With distance and time taken care of by particles, empty space becomes nothing but a void with no properties at all.