Having tested our model against major physical phenomena, and found it to hold up logically under scrutiny, our next step is to formalize the theory. We need to hook it up to established physical concepts and formulas.

What follows is some initial work to that end.

Note that every definition presented in this summary refers back to some earlier definition. The only exception being the fundamentals that act as our axioms. At no point do we need to incorporate anything external to our theory in order to make our explanations. Everything is directly or indirectly derived from the fundamentals.

## Fundamentals

**Particle quantum** = Fundamental building block of all things

**Extent** = Attribute of particle quanta

**Dimensions** = Attribute of particle quanta. There are 3 dimensions.

**Particle texture** = Attribute of particle quanta: woolly, abrasive and mixed.

**Motion** = Attribute of particle quanta

## Relative measures

**Length** = Extent in one dimension. Always measured relative to something else.

**Area** = Extent in two dimensions. Always measured relative to something else.

**Volume** = Extent in three dimensions. Always measured relative to something else.

**Smallest measurable distance** = Circumference of an electron

**Time** = Relative measure of motion. Always measured relative to something else.

**Smallest measurable time unit** = Circumference of electron / speed of light

**Instantaneous action** – Anything happening faster than the smallest measurable time unit

## Subatomic particles

**Neutrino** = A single particle quantum of mixed texture

**Electron** = Assembly of 2 woolly particle quanta and 1 abrasive particle quantum

**Positron** = Assembly of 2 abrasive particle quanta and 1 woolly particle quantum

**Photon** = Assembly of 1 electron and 1 positron

**Proton** = Assembly of 1089 abrasive particle quanta and 1088 woolly particle quanta

**Neutron** = Assembly of 1 electron and 1 proton

## Basic concepts

**Energy** = Surface areas of subatomic particles

**Aether** = Mix of low energy neutrinos and photons

**Space** = Aether

**Pilot wave** = Pressure wave in the aether. All particles except aether particles have associated pilot waves.

**Arrow of time** = Direction of pilot waves

## Inertia

**Inertia** at relative rest = Surface area of subatomic particle / speed of light squared

**Inertia** when adjusted for relative speed =

(Surface area of subatomic particle / 2 (speed of light + relative speed) squared) +

(Surface area of subatomic particle / 2 (speed of light – relative speed) squared)

**Inertial mass** at relative rest = Newtonian abstraction proportional to surface area of subatomic particles.

## Energy equivalence

With both energy and inertial mass related to surface areas of subatomic particles, we have an explanation for why there’s an energy equivalence: **E = mc ^{2}**.

Short explanation for ** E = mc^{2}**:

Energy is surface are of subatomic particles, which can be expressed as distance **d** in two dimensions **d ^{2}**. Hence, energy

**E**is equivalent to

**d**.

^{2}Inertial mass is the time delay **t** caused by energy transfers that happen at the speed of light. This happens over the surface of subatomic particles. Hence, inertial mass **m** is equivalent to time **t** in two dimensions. This yields **t ^{2}**.

The constant **c ^{2}** is the speed of light as it traverses a two dimensional surface.

From the above we get that **E = mc ^{2}** is equivalent to

**d**at the subatomic. The dimensions factor out correctly. We have strong support for our position that energy is surface area at the subatomic.

^{2}= t^{2}c^{2}## Kinetic energy

We also have an explanation for why kinetic energy increases by the square of velocity: **E _{k} = ½mv^{2}**.

Short explanation for **E _{k} = ½mv^{2}**:

For a body **m** to accelerate to a new velocity, there has to be an expansion of the surface area of its subatomic particles. This is in order to produce a new center of balance, as explained in the chapter on kinetics.

The shift in center of balance, required for acceleration, changes linearly with the square of the surface area of a sphere. Hence, when the velocity **v** of a body **m** increases by a given factor, the surface area of its subatomic particles increase by the square of that same factor. Energy **E _{k}** changes exponentially with changes in velocity

**v**.

Assuming that half of the impulse required to make the change in velocity goes into a change in velocity and the other half goes into a change in energy, we get that the change in energy **E _{k}** is equivalent to half the impact caused by the change in velocity. We get

**E**.

_{k}= ½mv^{2}## Force

Newtonian abstraction pertaining to pressure or tension. Force is related to acceleration through the formula **F = ma**

**Short range forces** = Direct interactions through particle textures

**Impulse** = Force applied directly to a body as opposed to indirectly through manipulation of the aether

## Field forces

**Electric force** = High and low pressure areas in the aether caused by neutrino collisions

**Gravity** = High and low pressure areas in the aether caused by an imbalance in the electric force

**Gravitational mass** = Newtonian abstraction proportional to surface area of subatomic particles. Inertial and gravitational mass are equivalent because both are functions of size at the subatomic.

**Magnetism** = polarized photons

**Magnetic force** = High and low pressure areas in the aether caused by polarized photon collisions

## Work

Newtonian abstraction for energy transfer

Work only happens when a body is accelerated by impulse in the direction of the applied force.

No work is done to a body accelerated by a field force before it crashes into something. This is because field forces are manipulation of the aether rather than direct impulses. Only if a field force is accompanied by an impulse is there any work done to the accelerated body.

Work doesn’t happen instantaneously but at the speed of light. The time delay experienced is what we call inertia.

The formula for work is **W = Fd**.

Force can be expressed as **F = ma**.

When we make the substitution, we get **W = mad**, which yields a time component because **a = d/t**^{2}.

We get **W = md**^{2}**/t**^{2}.

This relates Newton’s definition of work to our definition of energy and the way energy is distributed.

Using the energy equivalence **E = mc**^{2}, we can substitute **m** for **E/c**^{2}.

This yields **W = Ed**^{2}**/t**^{2}**c**^{2}

We have an expression that relates work to distance **d** at the macro level and distance **tc** traversed by aether particles at the micro level.

## Coulomb’s law

Coulomb’s law is an expression that relates force to the probability of aether particles colliding in the space between two charged points. It can be arrived at purely based on probability theory and the inverse square law as derived from geometry.

## Newton’s universal law of gravity

Gravity is an imbalance in the electric force. This force is therefore of the same form as Coulomb’s law. However, instead of expressing the force between two charged points, Newton’s formula express the aggregate effect of the imbalance. Gravitational mass is a proxy for the total number of charged particle quanta constituting a gravitational body.

Newton’s law can therefore be expressed in terms of k and the two variables, p_{1} and p_{2}, that link mass expressed in kg to inherent charge imbalance expressed in Coulomb:

With the gravitational constant G replaced by k, p_{1} and p_{2}, there’s no longer a need for G.

## Conclusion

Our model has been demonstrated to hold under scrutiny. Our analysis hasn’t revealed anything that gives us reason to abandon it. On the contrary, it conforms well to reality.

There are two paths forwards from here. One leads towards mathematical formulas and further nailing down of details. The other leads to a wider analysis, broadening the scope of the theory.

The mathematically inclined may fine enjoyment in deriving the various well established formulas from the principles laid out in this book. In this respect, we’ve only scratched the surface in our analysis. There’s no lack of formulas to analyse further.

Those with a philosophical inclination can use our theory as a model for wider interpretations. My previous book, Universe of Particles, may serve as inspiration in this respect. It enumerates several phenomena that call for alternative explanations from what’s currently accepted dogma.

There’s also pure theoretical work that can be done. There may be other ways to interpret physics from a strict particle perspective that yields equal or better results. Comments and suggestions in this respect are always welcome.

I hope you have enjoyed this analysis, and that you will keep this theory in mind as a plausible alternative to conventional theories.

## Acknowledgements

It was a remark made by Onar Åm back in 2016 that prompted me to embark on this grand tour of physics. He pointed out that Earth appears to be expanding. On discovering that this is true, I started searching for an explanation. One thing led to another. A few years later, I arrived at the theory presented in this book.

The work of Morton Spears and Halton Arp provided the hints I needed. Their combined insights suggested a strict particle model of reality, and I decided therefore to pursue this avenue of investigation.

Input from Wallace Thornhill, Peter Woodhead, Andrew Johnson, Freddie Thornton, Martin Nygaard, Henry Berg, Steve Whetstone, Alistair Riddoch, Franck Vallée, Michael Roffe, Michael Heikkinen and others, helped me formulate my ideas into the theory presented in this book.

Paul G Leader has since caught onto my ideas. He has formulated his own theory based on a structured neutrino model, and some of his work has in turn fed back into my theory.

I owe great thanks to all these people. Without their help and inputs, this book would not have come about.

**< Magnetism ————**