skip to Main Content

Having tested our model against major physical phenomena, and found it to hold up logically under scrutiny, our next step is to formalize the theory. We need to hook it up to established physical concepts and formulas.

What follows is some initial work to that end.

Note that every definition presented in this summary refers back to some earlier definition. The only exception being the fundamentals that act as our axioms. At no point do we need to incorporate anything external to our theory in order to make our explanations. Everything is directly or indirectly derived from the fundamentals.


Particle quantum = Fundamental building block of all things

Extent = Attribute of particle quanta

Dimensions = Attribute of particle quanta. There are 3 dimensions.

Particle texture = Attribute of particle quanta: woolly, abrasive and mixed.

Motion = Attribute of particle quanta

Relative measures

Length = Extent in one dimension. Always measured relative to something else.

Area = Extent in two dimensions. Always measured relative to something else.

Volume = Extent in three dimensions. Always measured relative to something else.

Smallest measurable distance = Circumference of an electron

Time = Relative measure of motion. Always measured relative to something else.

Smallest measurable time unit = Circumference of electron / speed of light

Instantaneous action – Anything happening faster than the smallest measurable time unit

Subatomic particles

Neutrino = A single particle quantum of mixed texture

Electron = Assembly of 2 woolly particle quanta and 1 abrasive particle quantum

Positron = Assembly of 2 abrasive particle quanta and 1 woolly particle quantum

Photon = Assembly of 1 electron and 1 positron

Proton = Assembly of 1089 abrasive particle quanta and 1088 woolly particle quanta

Neutron = Assembly of 1 electron and 1 proton

Basic concepts

Energy = Surface areas of subatomic particles

Aether = Mix of low energy neutrinos and photons

Space = Aether

Pilot wave = Pressure wave in the aether. All particles except aether particles have associated pilot waves.

Arrow of time = Direction of pilot waves

Inertia (at relative rest) = Circumference of subatomic particle / speed of light

Inertia (when adjusted for relative speed) =
(Circumference of subatomic particle / 2 (speed of light + relative speed)) +
(Circumference of subatomic particle / 2 (speed of light – relative speed))

Inertial mass (at relative rest) = Newtonian abstraction proportional to surface area of subatomic particles.

With both energy and inertial mass related to surface areas of subatomic particles, we have an explanation for why there’s an energy equivalence: E = mc2.


Newtonian abstraction pertaining to pressure or tension. Force is related to acceleration through the formula F = ma

Short range forces = Direct interactions through particle textures

Impulse = Force applied directly to a body as opposed to indirectly through manipulation of the aether

Field forces

Electric force = High and low pressure areas in the aether caused by neutrino collisions

Gravity = High and low pressure areas in the aether caused by an imbalance in the electric force

Gravitational mass = Newtonian abstraction proportional to surface area of subatomic particles. Inertial and gravitational mass are equivalent because both are functions of size at the subatomic.

Magnetism = polarized photons

Magnetic force = High and low pressure areas in the aether caused by polarized photon collisions


Newtonian abstraction for energy transfer

Work only happens when a body is accelerated by impulse in the direction of the applied force.

No work is done to a body accelerated by a field force before it crashes into something. This is because field forces are manipulation of the aether rather than direct impulses. Only if a field force is accompanied by an impulse is there any work done to the accelerated body.

Work doesn’t happen instantaneously but at the speed of light. The time delay experienced is what we call inertia.

The formula for work is W = Fd.

Force can be expressed as F = ma.

When we make the substitution, we get W = mad, which yields a time component because a = d/t2.

We get W = md2/t2.

This relates Newton’s definition of work to our definition of energy and the way energy is distributed.

Using the energy equivalence E = mc2, we can substitute m for E/c2.

This yields W = Ed2/t2c2

We have an expression that relates work to distance d at the macro level and distance tc traversed by aether particles at the micro level.

Coulomb’s law

Coulomb’s law is an expression that relates force to the probability of aether particles colliding in the space between two charged points. It can be arrived at purely based on probability theory and the inverse square law as derived from geometry.

Coulomb's Law Explained
Coulomb’s Law Explained

Newton’s universal law of gravity

Gravity is an imbalance in the electric force. This force is therefore of the same form as Coulomb’s law. However, instead of expressing the force between two charged points, Newton’s formula express the aggregate effect of the imbalance. Gravitational mass is a proxy for the total number of charged particle quanta constituting a gravitational body.

Coulomb's law compared to Newton's law
Coulomb’s law compared to Newton’s law


Our model has been demonstrated to hold under scrutiny. Our analysis hasn’t revealed anything that gives us reason to abandon it. On the contrary, it conforms well to reality.

There are two paths forwards from here. One leads towards mathematical formulas and further nailing down of details. The other leads to a wider analysis, broadening the scope of the theory.

The mathematically inclined may fine enjoyment in deriving the various well established formulas from the principles laid out in this book. In this respect, we’ve only scratched the surface in our analysis. There’s no lack of formulas to analyse further.

Those with a philosophical inclination can use our theory as a model for wider interpretations. My previous book, Universe of Particles, may serve as inspiration in this respect. It enumerates several phenomena that call for alternative explanations from what’s currently accepted dogma.

There’s also pure theoretical work that can be done. There may be other ways to interpret physics from a strict particle perspective that yields equal or better results. Comments and suggestions in this respect are always welcome.

I hope you have enjoyed this analysis, and that you will keep this theory in mind as a plausible alternative to conventional theories.


It was a remark made by Onar Åm back in 2016 that prompted me to embark on this grand tour of physics. He pointed out that Earth appears to be expanding. On discovering that this is true, I started searching for an explanation. One thing led to another. A few years later, I arrived at the theory presented in this book.

The work of Morton Spears and Halton Arp provided the hints I needed. Their combined insights suggested a strict particle model of reality, and I decided therefore to pursue this avenue of investigation.

Input from Wallace Thornhill, Peter Woodhead, Andrew Johnson, Freddie Thornton, Martin Nygaard, Henry Berg, Steve Whetstone, Alistair Riddoch, Franck Vallée, Michael Roffe, Michael Heikkinen and others, helped me formulate my ideas into the theory presented in this book.

Paul G Leader has since caught onto my ideas. He has formulated his own theory based on a structured neutrino model, and some of his work has in turn fed back into my theory.

I owe great thanks to all these people. Without their help and inputs, this book would not have come about.

< Magnetism ————

Back To Top

By continuing to use the site, you agree to the use of cookies. More information

The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click "Accept" below then you are consenting to this.