The electric force between an electron and a proton is due to their difference in charge. A proton carries a net charge of +1, while the electron carries a net charge of -1. The fact that there is a total of 2177 charged quanta making up the proton and a total of 3 charged quanta making up the electron does nothing to alter this. It is the net charge of the respective particles that matters.
Together, the proton and electron forms a neutral whole with a net charge of 0. However, this is not to say that there is no charge surrounding a neutral atom. There is a big difference between no net charge and no charge at all.
Neutral matter produce just as many charged neutrinos as charged matter. The only difference is that the charge adds up to exactly zero in the case of neutral matter, while charged matter produce an excess of either negatively or positively charged neutrinos.
The electric force depends on the net imbalance in charge between two bodies. When the number of positively and negatively charged neutrinos around a body average out to zero, there is no electric field.
However, as previously mentioned, there is a tiny difference in reactivity between positively and negatively charged quanta. This was illustrated with the analogy of Velcro, in which hooks react ever so lightly with other hooks while hoops don’t react with other hoops. This in turn was used to explain why protons are larger than electrons.
Since positive quanta react lightly with each other, we get that a collision between two positively charged neutrinos will not be the completely perfect bounce that we get when two negatively charged neutrinos collide.
For two neutral bodies, we get that the following four types of collisions can happen with exact same probability. Note that all collisions except hooks on hooks produce one unit of pressure:
- Hooks meet hoops = 1 unit of low pressure
- Hoops meet hooks = 1 unit of low pressure
- Hoops meet hoops = 1 unit of high pressure
- Hooks meet hooks = 1-x unit of high pressure, where x is a tiny fraction of 1
The hooks on hooks collision produces a slightly imperfect collision, resulting in a less than perfect unit of high pressure. When we add up all the possible collisions, we get a tiny bit of low pressure.
With a sufficiently large number of collisions we get a weak attracting force.
It is this weak attracting force between neutral bodies that we refer to as gravity.
From this we see that gravity is a special case of the electric force. This in turn explains why the formula for Newton’s universal law of gravity bears such a striking resemblance to Coulomb’s law.
Coulomb’s law is an expression for force based on net charge, while Newton’s law is an expression for force based on total charge. Since inertial mass is directly related to the number of charged quanta making up protons and electrons, inertia is a perfect proxy for total charge.
In conclusion, we can say that gravity is due to a tiny imbalance in the electric force.