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Our Sun is thought to be a big ball of gas with a fusion reactor at its core producing all the heat that radiates from it. However, at closer inspection, the Sun does not look anything like what this theory suggests.

The surface of the Sun, the so called photosphere, looks suspiciously like a liquid. It can produce giant fountains and arches that drip back onto its surface.

When there is a hole in the photosphere that we can peek through, there is nothing to suggest that there is anything going on underneath. Sunspots are black and cool compared to the photosphere.

Sun with sunspots By Geoff Elston - Society for Popular Astronomy, Solar section,, CC BY 4.0,
Sun with sunspots By Geoff Elston - Society for Popular Astronomy, Solar section,, CC BY 4.0,

The hottest part of the Sun is not close to its core, but in its corona, thousands of miles above its surface.

This is all indicative of electricity. A big difference in voltage potential can accelerate charged particles to enormous speeds, making them increasingly hot as they accelerate towards space. A surface bombarded by charged particles can get so hot that it melts.

It appears then that the current that created the solar system in the first place continues to flow, and that it powers our Sun.

The photosphere is not a gas but liquid rock.

Under the photosphere, where it is relatively cool, stars are solid.

Stars are not made of material significantly different from planets, comets and meteorites. There’s no real difference between a star and a planet except for size.

Stars are hotter than planets, simply because they are bigger and therefore the focal point of interstellar currents.

The mistake that has been made regarding the chemical composition of stars is the same that was made for comets. The abundance of water in the tails of comets is due to electrolysis and nuclear fission. Comets are rocky bodies, not dirty snowballs.

The abundance of hydrogen and helium seen in the light spectra of stars are due to these same processes.

All the large bodies in our solar system are predominantly made of rock of various kinds. Large planets like Jupiter and Saturn are able to hold onto thick atmospheres, but it is a mistake to think that they have no solid surface. They too have rocky surfaces, just like our Sun.

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