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Our Sun is thought to be a big ball of gas with a fusion reactor at its core that produces all the heat that radiates from it. However, at closer inspection, the Sun doesn’t look anything like what this theory suggests.

The surface of the Sun, the so called photosphere, looks suspiciously like a liquid. It can produce giant fountains and arches that drip back onto its surface.

When there’s a hole in the photosphere that we can peek through, there is nothing to suggest that there is anything going on underneath. Sunspots are black and cool compared to the photosphere.

Sun with sunspots By Geoff Elston - Society for Popular Astronomy, Solar section,, CC BY 4.0,
Sun with sunspots By Geoff Elston - Society for Popular Astronomy, Solar section,, CC BY 4.0,

The hottest part of the Sun isn’t close to its core. It’s in its corona, thousands of miles above its surface.

This is all indicative of electricity. A big difference in voltage potential can accelerate charged particles to enormous speeds, making them increasingly hot as they accelerate towards space. A surface bombarded by charged particles can get so hot that it melts.

It appears that the current that created the solar system in the first place continues to flow, and that this current powers our Sun.

The photosphere isn’t a gas but liquid rock.

Under the photosphere, where it’s relatively cool, stars are solid.

Stars aren’t made of materials significantly different from planets, comets and meteorites. There’s no difference between a star and a planet except for size.

Stars are hotter than planets because they’re bigger and therefore the focal point of interstellar currents.

The abundance of hydrogen and helium seen in the light spectra of stars are due to fission, and not due to an abundance of these elements in the star itself.

All astronomic bodies are predominantly made of rock of various kinds. Large planets like Jupiter and Saturn are able to hold onto thick atmospheres, but it’s a mistake to think that they have no solid surface. They too have rocky surfaces, and so does our Sun.

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