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We are now in a position to propose an alternative to the accepted idea that electrons hover mysteriously above atomic nuclei. In our physics, where everything happens through direct kinetic interaction, we suggest that electrons do not hover. They bounce:

The bouncing electron

Returning to the phenomenon of free neutron decay, we can make some further observations and interpretations. First of all, we can make the educated guess that the neutrino accompanying the electron comes from within the proton. A proton is after all a large bloated net. There is aether inside of it.

A neutron is a proton with an electron stuck to it due to natural affinity. The mostly abrasive texture of protons stick to the mostly woolly texture of electrons. To free the electron from the proton, a random high energy neutrino has to knock the electron loose from the proton. To do so successfully, it is best if this happens from inside the proton rather than at an angle.

From this we can further conclude that the affinity between protons and electrons is relatively weak. A proton cannot hold onto an electron for very long, and it’s close to impossible to attach an electron to a proton. If a stray electron bumps into a proton, it will bounce rather than stick. If the bounce is energetic enough, the stray electron continues its journey, leaving the proton behind. However, if the bounce is too weak to escape the electric field of the proton, the electron comes down again for a second bounce. Unable to escape the electric field, and equally unable to stick to the proton, the stray electron becomes a captive of the proton. Without any added energy, it is stuck bouncing up and down on the proton. This logic goes for all atomic nuclei because all atomic nuclei carry positive charge. They are all largely abrasive.

Keeping in mind that protons are like inflated balloons, and atomic nuclei are known to be assemblies of such balloons, we get that every atomic nuclei has a resonant frequency. This means that any electron captured by an atomic nucleus must bounce at harmonics corresponding to its resonant frequency. Any deviation will be forced back into harmony. Electrons at their lowest energy level, bounce at the resonant frequency of the atomic nucleus. For every vibration of the nucleus, the electron makes a bounce. The next energy level is at the next harmonic, allowing the nucleus to vibrate twice for every bounce. Then we have the next level, where the nucleus vibrates three times for each bounce, and so on until we reach escape velocity.

This explains the fact that captured electrons come in discrete energy levels, and why these energy levels are different for different atomic nuclei. It also explains why captured electrons are more likely to be found in certain regions of space relative to the nucleus than other regions.

For atoms with more than two protons in their nuclei, there is not enough room for all of the electrons to bounce directly off of the nucleus. Only two electrons can do this. Additional electrons bounce off of the repelling electric field that exist between electrons. These electrons are attracted by the nucleus, but repelled by their fellow electrons. What we get is an atomic nucleus with electrons neatly spaced out in various regions so that every electron is as close as possible to the atomic nucleus and at the same time as far as possible away from their fellow electrons.

Atomic nucleus with net charge of 10, surrounded by 10 bouncing electrons = Neon
Atomic nucleus with net charge of 10, surrounded by 10 bouncing electrons = Neon

Every electron bounces about with a frequency dictated by the atomic nucleus. The inner two electrons bounce directly off of the nucleus. The outer electrons bounce off the electric fields of the electrons closer to the nucleus. Together, this forms a perfectly harmonic structure, capable of absorbing end releasing energy in discrete quanta.

A high energy particle that crashes into one of the bouncing electrons will transmit energy to the electron. If the energy transmitted is a little too much, the stray jacket of allowed harmonics comes in, forcing the superfluous energy into the nucleus and aether. The electron will go up any number of energy levels, depending on how much energy is transferred from the particle to the electron.

Neon absorbing energy from an energetic photon
Neon absorbing energy from an energetic photon

When the energetic electron at some later time knocks into a low energy photon, everywhere available in the aether, the opposite happens.

Neon yielding energy to a low energy photon, thus producing light
Neon yielding energy to a low energy photon, thus producing light

The photon is kicked up in energy by the energetic electron, which then returns to its low energy state.

This is how neon lighting works. However, this is not the only way light can be produced. White light is produced differently. White light contains all sorts of energies. Electrons producing white light are therefore randomly yielding energy to photons. This is very different from pure neon light, which only comes in very narrow and well defined energy spectra.

Chemical bonds

Chemical bonds are formed when atoms find efficient ways to arrange their electrons. In cases where such arrangements are more efficient than the original arrangement, energy is released. Otherwise, energy is consumed in order to produce the arrangement. The subatomic particles involved grow or shrink accordingly.

Two hydrogen molecules and a carbon atom combine to form methane
Two hydrogen molecules and a carbon atom combine to form methane

All of this fits well with the pure particle model proposed in this book. However, it leaves us with one burning question. What is this electric force that makes it possible for atomic nuclei to pull on electrons at a distance?

< Kinetics ———— | ———— The electric force >

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