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We can now apply our theory to phenomena related to electric currents and their associated magnetic fields. From this we arrive at a complete model of the photon as well as an explanation for what magnetism is and how it works. We also find an explanation for why there’s a twist to electric currents:

Electric currents

Electric currents can be defined as charges in motion. We can induce electric currents in wires by setting electrons moving. There are electric currents in our atmosphere, because our atmosphere has charge gradient as well as motion in the form of winds. For the same reason, we have electric currents in space. There are currents of charged particles everywhere.

An interesting feature of electric currents is that they always come with a circular magnetic field around them, and this circular field is in the same direction regardless of how the electric current is constituted. A positive ion moving from right to left produces the exact same magnetic field around it as when a negative ion of the same size moves from left to right.

From this fact, we have established a convention in which the direction of current is defined as the direction a positive ion would have to travel in order to produce the observed magnetic field. As a consequence of this, all electric currents caused by electrons in motion are by definition in the opposite direction of the electron flow.

The established rule is that if we curve the fingers of our right hand in the direction of the magnetic field, our thumb points in the direction of the current. Conversely, if we point our right hand thumb in the direction of a current, our fingers curve in the direction of the magnetic field. This rule is called Ampère’s right-hand grip rule in honour of its inventor.

Ampère's right-hand grip rule
Ampère’s right-hand grip rule

Seen in context of our theory, the magnetic field must be a product of the aether, which is constituted of low energy photons and neutrinos. Furthermore, the complexity of the behaviour suggests that we are dealing with photons, rather than neutrinos.

Adding to our suspicions, we have the discovery by Michael Faraday in 1845 that magnetic fields polarize visible light. Magnetic fields are therefore demonstrably a phenomenon associated with the photon. We can even go so far as to suggest that magnetic fields are photons polarized in such a way that they all line up with their orbs pointing in the same direction, because if we apply this assumption to our theory, we get an explanation for Ampère’s right-hand grip rule. All that’s required is one more assumption about the photon. The two orbs of the photons must be connected in such a way that when one spins in one direction, the other one spins in the opposite direction:

Proposed model of photon
Proposed model of photon

With this in mind, it is now possible to arrive at Ampère’s right-hand grip rule directly from our theory. To do this, let us first consider what happens when we move a positive ion from right to left through the aether, and then compare this to what happens when we move a negative ion from left to right.

The aether is so dense that every particle in it is always in direct contact with all its neighbours. This means that our positive ion will constantly brush into low energy photons as it travels from right to left.

Our positive ion has a predominantly abrasive texture to it, so it tends to grab onto the woolly orb of photons, setting these orbs spinning while simultaneously aligning the photons in parallel with itself:

Effect of positive ion on photons in the aether as it moves from right to left
Effect of positive ion on photons in the aether as it moves from right to left

Negative orbs of photons are set spinning in such a way that if we look at them from above, they spin counter-clockwise.

Let us now compare this to a negative ion moving in the opposite direction:

Effect of negative ion on photons in the aether as it moves from left to right
Effect of negative ion on photons in the aether as it moves from left to right

In this case, it’s the abrasive ends of photons that are set spinning. Seen from above the positive orbs, the spin is counter-clockwise. Since the spin of the negative orb is equal and opposite, we get that the spin of the negative orb, as seen from above the positive orb is clockwise. But if we flip our vantage point to be above the negative orb, we see the negative orb spinning counter-clockwise, exactly as was the case for our positive ion moving from right to left.

From theory, including our assumption about the photon, we have arrived at Ampère’s right-hand grip rule. We can conclude that magnetism is polarized photons in the aether, with spin, orientation and alignment fully coordinated.

Magnetic force

When discussing magnets and magnetism, it’s important to keep in mind that there is no net flow anywhere. What we have is coordinated spin, orientation and alignment of photons in the aether. Photons that happen to pass trough a magnet, come out polarized. This rubs off on neighbouring photons as they pass by. They in turn, rub off their polarization on other photons. The whole space around a magnet gets polarized in this way, with the strongest polarization above each pole of the magnet.

The entirety of the field does not come directly from the magnet, but by a relatively small number of photons rubbing off their polarization onto neighbouring photons after first having passed through the magnet. This is visibly evident in ferro-fluids, with their peaks and troughs.

The fact that photons do not have to pass through a magnet to be polarized has been known since Faraday performed his famous experiment:

Visible light polarized by a magnetic field
Visible light polarized by a magnetic field

Uncoordinated photons passing through a magnetic field comes out polarized. We propose that this happens to low energy photons present in the aether in the exact same way as it does for visible light.

By introducing a second magnet, we can now play around with the magnetic force that arises between magnets. This force is also due to particle collisions. However, in this case we’re talking about photons, not neutrinos as was the case for the electric force and gravity. But the general mechanism is the same.

Photons passing through magnets come out well coordinated and spinning. In the case of two magnets facing each other with opposite polarity, we get abrasive head on collisions. This has the overall tendency of pushing photons out of the field. The density of the aether between the magnets is reduced. This in turn draws the magnets together.

Magnetic attraction due to photons vacating the field
Magnetic attraction due to photons vacating the field

On the other hand, when two magnets face each other with same polarity, we get non-abrasive collisions. Photons will tend to stay in the field, building up pressure in the aether, which in turn pushes the magnets apart:

Magnetic repulsion due to photons staying in the field
Magnetic repulsion due to photons staying in the field

Why electric currents come with a twist

Magnets can be used to induce currents into wires, and separate charges in gases. Conversely, charge separation results in electric currents, and electric currents induce magnetism. What we have is a fractal relationship between magnetism and electricity. Small currents, with correspondingly small magnetic fields, self organize into larger currents and fields. Grand currents with enormous electric fields fall apart into smaller currents with smaller electric fields. This is going on everywhere, from the minutest of cells and microbes to galaxies and galaxy clusters.

There is no top or bottom in this hierarchy. It’s all part of one giant cosmic whole. However, there’s a small imbalance in it. When magnetized photons separate charges, sending positive ions one way, and electrons and negative ions the other way, the tiny attraction between two abrasive textures comes into play. We find that the mechanism that explained the relative size difference between electrons and protons, and also the gravitational force, can be used to explain why electric currents twist.

To understand this, let us first apply our theory to the phenomenon of charge separation and induction of electric currents by the use of a magnet:

Charge separation by swiping a magnet forward
Charge separation by swiping a magnet forward

The photons in the illustration are oriented according to the north seeking pole of a magnet. When swiped away from us, into the paper, the photons’ negative orbs drive positively charged particles to the left. Correspondingly, the photons’ positive orbs drive negatively charged particles to the right. This is due to the combined effect of the photons’ spin and the direction of the swipe. The resulting current is in this case to the left, as can be confirmed by applying Ampère’s right hand grip rule.

All of this conforms precisely to reality, confirming that our theory is valid. However, positively charged particles will be pushed a tiny bit less hard to the left, compared to negatively charged particles to the right. This is because abrasive surfaces do not rub as smoothly against each other as woolly surfaces. The abrasive orbs of photons interfere destructively in the transfer of energy from the swipe to positively charged particles.

With no corresponding destructive interference in the transfer of energy onto negative particles, we get a tiny imbalance. To compensate for this, positively charged particles move in straighter lines than negatively charged particles, and it is this compensation that induces an overall twist.

Due to self-interference through magnetism, even electric currents constituted of electrons alone twist. The induced magnetic field around wires reflect back to the current of electrons, which in turn start to twist due to the tiny difference describe above.

Again, we are talking about a trillionth of a trillionth degree in difference. This isn’t something that is easily detected directly through measurements of force. However, it becomes visible on large scales.

< Gravity ———— | ———— Conclusion >

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