The theory presented on this blog has energy as size at the subatomic. Specifically, it…

# Modified Newtonian Dynamics

Modified Newtonian dynamics is a theory that seeks to explain why galaxies rotate the way they do without conjuring up any need for dark matter.

## Observations vs predictions

Based solely on observable matter, galaxies don’t rotate in accordance with Newton’s universal law of gravity. Stars rotate quicker at the peripheral than Newton’s formula predicts, which indicate that gravity is acting with stronger force than predicted, especially at distances far from the center of galaxies.

This has led most astronomers to conclude that galaxies must be full of dark matter that has thus far escaped detection, because this would provide extra gravitational pull.

However, some have suggested that Newton might have missed a factor in his equation. Maybe the force of gravity doesn’t taper off quite as quickly with distance as Newton suggested, because that too would explain why peripheral stars move as fast as they do.

## Other proposed solution

Donald Scott, a member of the electric universe community, has suggested that galaxies aren’t in fact governed primarily by gravity. Rather, they show more similarities with storm systems on Earth than solar systems. Some galaxies even have observable counter-rotation at their fringes, similar to those observed for storms.

This has led Donald Scott to conclude that galaxies are primarily driven by Birkeland currents and that gravity only plays a secondary role in their behavior.

However, this doesn’t mean that there’s no invisible matter. Nor does it mean that Newton’s formula is safe from scrutiny.

## Galaxies are complex structures

Galaxies are so large and complex that it would be strange if they can be explained entirely in electrical terms, with no regard to gravity. There’s almost certainly a lot of invisible matter mixed up in galaxies, and some of Newton’s assumptions are due for a rethink.

Gravity anomalies, Earth’s increased gravity over time, and the fact that asteroids have weaker gravity than expected, can all be explained if we allow charge and capacitance to be part of the equation for gravity.

There’s no lack of evidence suggesting that gravity isn’t in fact a universal constant.

## Gravity seems to grow stronger over time

Halton Arp noted in his work on galaxies that they seem to grow larger and more gravitationally strong over time. They start out with a relatively small number of stars that drift outwards from the center where new stars are continuously being created. Hence, the oldest stars and planets are found out towards the periphery with the younger ones closer to the center. If gravity is something that grows stronger over time, it follows that the stars at the perimeter are more gravitationally strong than the ones closer to the center, and that there’s a need to incorporate this into our thinking.

The idea that gravity grows stronger over time is so controversial that it’s never mentioned as a possibility by mainstream physicists. Modified Newtonian dynamics has therefore been developed without any mention of Halton Arp and his thoughts on the matter. A new variable has been introduced into Newton’s formula without any further explanation than that it’s required in order to make observations fit the theory.

Instead of a reference to Halton Arp’s ideas, we’re left with a fudge factor with no further explanation.

## Successful predictions

The modified Newtonian dynamics formula works well enough to explain the rotational speed of a large number of galaxies without the need to introduce other factors.

As an example of this, consider the measured velocities of the following spiral galaxy:

The measured speeds relative to distance from the center make a smooth upwards curve.

This is contrary to the predictions made by Newton’s classic formula, which has speeds taper off at greater distances.

But once we add the fudge factor used in modified Newtonian dynamics, observations are once again in line with observations.

The only problem with this is that we aren’t given any explanation for the fudge factor.

However, an electric interpretation of gravity will not only introduce required fudge factors. It will also explain what these factors are.

## Solving the puzzle

If gravity is due to an imbalance in the electric force, where electric attraction is a tiny bit stronger than electric repulsion, we end up with Newton’s law as a mere variant of Coulomb’s law:

The variables p_{1} and p_{2} convert the masses M_{1} and M_{2} respectively into charge imbalances, expressed in Coulomb.

From this, we get that p_{1}M_{1} and p_{2}M_{2} correspond to the point charges q_{1} and q_{2} in Coulomb’s law. We can therefore use Coulomb’s law to calculate the force of gravity due to p_{1}M_{1} and p_{2}M_{2}.

The variables p_{1} and p_{2} are sensitive to capacitance and charge, which typically increase due to expansion and other changes that happen to stars and planets over time.

If mass also increases over time, as suggested by Halton Arp, we get that M_{1} and M_{2} are variables as well. This gives us four variables that all increase over time, exactly as required.

We have thus arrived at an explanation for the fudge factor, with every variable explained and accounted for.

## Conclusion

We’ve found a way to incorporate modified Newtonian dynamics into our electric model of gravity. However, that doesn’t mean that there’s no invisible matter, or that Donald Scott was wrong. Rather, it means that we have a mechanism that works well in combination with the two other proposed solutions to the observed anomalies.

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